Review Article Microbial Degradation of Chlorpyrifos

Research Article
Y.Jayasri*, M.Dhananjaya Naidu* and M. Mallikarjuna
Biodegradation, Organophosphorus, Chlorpyrifos

Chlorpyrifos (O, O-diethyl O-(3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate) is an organophosphorus compound using among the world to control insects and mites on a number of crops. Chlorpyrifos is one of the world's most widely used organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture. Chlorpyrifos is having high soil absorption co-efficient, but low water solubility. Microbial degradation is depends of the selection of microbial strains. Biodegradation of organophosphates involves activities of phosphatase, esterase, hydrolase and oxygenase enzymes. But the hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos is an important process in the degradation of organophosphorus insecticides, usually resulting in an increase in the number of polar metabolites and a reduction in acute toxicity. Two mechanisms of chlorpyrifos hydrolysis may occur due to pH effects. Recently, research activity in this area has shown that a diverse range of microorganisms is responsible for chlorpyrifos degradation. This article therefore aims at giving an overview of the present status of research in biodegradation of chlorpyrifos.