Preliminary Studies On The Pygidial Gland And Abdomen Of The Bombardier Beetle, Pheropsophus Hilaris Hilar Is (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Research Article
Iyyappan V and Ramesh Kumar T
Nozzle, Bombardier, Pygidial gland, Predators, Hydroquinines, defense mechanism, collecting reservoirs, Sphincter Muscle.

The bombardier beetle has been the subject of much discussion by creationists and evolutionists alike. Recent reports demonstrate the sophistication and accuracy with these carabid beetle deliver a spray of hot quinones and steam to ward off predators. Works over the last 50 year have reported on the histology and ultrastructure of the pygidial gland and accessory components of these defensive organ. Those reports differ significantly from the present paper. Thus it appears that some distinction exists in the morphology of the abdomen, defensive gland and nozzle.