Genetics And Development Of Human Dentition

Research Article
Isha Gargya, Vinay S. Dua and Ramesh Ram Fry
Gene, Allele, Malocclusion, dental anomalies, craniofacial growth, mutation, genetic polymorphism

Influence of genetics and environmental factors in the etiology of malocclusion has been a matter of debate in Orthodontic literature. Both genetic and environmental factors interact to develop the phenotype of an individual(nature and nurture).A sound knowledge of various etiologies of malocclusion is an essential pre requisite, also considering a genetic basis for occlusal variations is a major focus of interest for an orthodontist. Contemporary clinical opinion emphasizes the role of heredity as a major cause of malocclusion. The key to determination of etiology of malocclusion and its treatability lies in the ability to differentiate the effect of genes and environment on the development of craniofacial skeleton in a particular individual. It is well known that genetics as well as environmental play important roles in the etiology of various dentofacial and skeletal anomalies. Genetic mechanisms underlying development are particularly predominant during embryonic craniomorphogenesis. The process of tooth development is strictly regulated by various epithelial and mesenchymal factors. It is of great value in making preventive and interceptive orthodontic procedures so that malocclusions could be prevented or least intercepted by timely removal of the causative factor. Recent advances in genomic technologies and research offer exciting possibilities to reveal genetic basis for differences in orthodontic tooth movement between humans. Recent studies in genetic sciences allow the orthodontist to better understand the effect of genetics on the development of dentofacial characteristics, therefore formulate a treatment plan accordingly. The purpose of this article is to collect comprehensive data on various dentofacial anomalies associated with a genetic etiology, add genetic information in orthodontic literature on the interaction between genetics and orthodontics and review the application of genetic studies to the etiology of malocclusions.